Skip to Main Content

Citation Guides & Style Manuals

Citing Audio & Video Sources

For nonprint sources such as films, sound recordings, and music videos, use common sense. Most such works can be sufficiently cited in the text and should not require end matter. Use the date. Include end matter if you think it would be helpful (discography, filmography, songography, videography, etc.)

For films, include country and director if they are important

For sound recordings, include the recording artist and (unless you think they are unnecessary) the format, label, and catalog number

Examples of Citations

Musical Scores

Schumann, Robert. Album für die Jugend (Album for the Young). Op. 68. Edited and annotated by Howard Ferguson. [England] : Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, 1981.
Sound Recordings Wagner, Richard. Tristan und Isolde. Rundfunkchor Leipzig and Staatskapelle Dresden. Carlos Kleiber. Deutsche Grammophon compact disc 413 315-2.
Video Recordings America Dances! 1897 - 1948: A Collector's Edition of Social Dance in Film. 2003. Dancetime Publications. DVD.