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EDC232: Reacting to the Past: American Middle Schools and High Schools: Character Research

Fall 2017

Jane Addams (1860-1935)

Mary Antin (Mashke) (1881 - 1949)

(Media Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Bio: Mary Antin (Mashke) Biography

Primary Sources:
The Promised Land (1912)
Photo of Mary and her sister

Secondary Sources:
Jirousek, L. (2008). Mary Antin’s Progressive Science: Eugenics, Evolution, and the Environment. Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal Of Jewish
, (1), 58.

Alice Barrows (1878 - 1954)

(Media Source: University of Maine Digital Commons)
Bio: Alice Barrows Biography
Primary sources:
The Meaning of the Wirt Plan (1917)
The Gary System - article in The Town (1916)
Secondary sources:
Volk, K. (2005). The Gary Plan and Technology Education: What Might Have Been? The Journal of Technology Studies, 31(1/2), 39-48. Retrieved from
Alice Barrows and the Platoon School (1977)

Mary McLeod Bethune (1875- 1955)

(Media Source: Smith College Sophia Smith Collection)
Bio: Mary McLeod Bethune Biography
Primary Source:
Link to Five College book

Secondary Sources:
Brawley, B. G. (1919). Women of Achievement. Woman's American Baptist home mission society - see chapter on Bethune (p. 71)
Schüler, Anja. "Bethune, Mary Mcleod." Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century, edited by Ed. Paul Finkelman. Oxford African American Studies Center,
Hanson, Joyce Ann. Mary McLeod Bethune and Black Women's Political Activism. Columbia, US: University of Missouri Press, 2003. ProQuest ebrary.  (E- Book)

John Franklin Bobbitt (1876-1956)

John Franklin Bobbitt

(Media Source: Keith Bobbit)
Bio: John Franklin Bobbitt Biography
Primary Sources:
What the Schools Teach and Might Teach (1915) - Focus on Chapters: The Point of View & Differentiation of Courses
The Curriculum, 1918

WEB DuBois (1868 -1963)

(Media Source: Wikipedia)
Bio: W. E. B. DuBois Biography

Primary sources:

The Talented Tenth (1903)
W. E. Burghardt DuBois. "Education and Work." The Journal of Negro Education 1, no. 1 (1932): 60-74.
Du Bois, W. B. (1973). The education of Black people ; ten critiques, 1906-1960. Amherst : University of Massachusetts Press, 1973. LC2801 .D79 1973

Secondary Source:

Suggs, Jon-Christian, Dale Edwyna Smith and Wes Borucki. "Du Bois, W. E. B.." Encyclopedia of African American History, 1896 to the Present: From the Age of Segregation to the Twenty-first Century, edited by Ed. Paul Finkelman. Oxford African American Studies Center,
W.E.B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement (

G. Stanley Hall (1846 - 1924)

(Media Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Bio: G. Stanley Hall Biography

Primary Source:

The Ideal School As Based On Child Study
Hall, G. Stanley 1844-1924. (1904). Focus on stage of "Adolescence" section IV.
Adolescence: its psychology and its relations to physiology, anthropology, sociology, sex, crime, religion and education. New York: D. Appleton and company.

Secondary Sources:

Cravens, H. (2006). The historical context of G. Stanley Hall's Adolescence (1904). History Of Psychology, 9(3), 172-185. doi:10.1037/1093-4510.9.3.172

William Kilpatrick (1871 -1965)

(Media Source: Provo (UT) Library Historical Photographs)
Bio: William Kilpatrick Biography
Primary Sources:

Kilpatrick, W. Heard. (1918). The project method, the use of the purposeful act in the   educative process. New York city: Teachers college, Columbia university.

Secondary Sources:

William Heard Kilpatrick (1871-1965): Philosopher of Progressive Education and Teacher of Teachers
DuCharme, Catherine C. Historical Roots of the Project Approach in the United States: 1850-1930.

Mary White Ovington (1865-1951)

(Media Source: Brittanica)

Mary White Ovington Biography


Half a Man: The Status of the Negro in New York (1911)

Ovington, M. W., & Luker, R. E. (1995). Black and white sat down together : the reminiscences of an NAACP founder. New York : Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1995. E185.97.O95 A3 1995

Secondary Source:

Perry, M. E. (2010). Mary White Ovington. American National Biography (From Oxford University Press),


Margaret Sanger (1879 - 1966)

Margaret Sanger
(Media Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Bio: Margaret Sanger Biography

Primary Source:

Family Limitation (1917)
Secondary Source:
Parry, M. (2013). Battling Silence and Censorship. In Broadcasting Birth Control: Mass Media and Family Planning (pp. 12-44). Rutgers University Press. Retrieved from
Maddex, R. L. (2006). Margaret Sanger. In Encyclopedia of sexual behavior and the law (pp. 294-295). Washington, DC: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781452240107.n183

David Snedden (1868 - 1951)

(Media Source: University of Michigan Library)
Bio: David Snedden Biography
Primary Sources:
The Administration of Public Education - Ch. 1 & II & XX
Ch. XX The Administration of High Schools

Secondary Source:
Null, J. (2010). Social efficiency tradition. In C. Kridel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of curriculum studies (pp. 790-791). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781412958806.n417

Edward L. Thorndike (1874 -1949)

(Media Source: Wikimedia Commons)
Bio: Edward L. Thorndike Biography
Primary Source:
Measurement of Educational Products (1918)
Secondary Sources:
Epstein, R.(2004). Thorndike, Edward Lee. In The Oxford Companion to the Mind. : Oxford University Press.


Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)

(Media Source: Wikimedia Commons)

Booker T. Washington Biography

Primary Sources:
Atlanta Exposition (1895)
Up From Slavery: an Autobiography
New York, N.Y.: A. L. Burt Company, Publishers, 1901.
Secondary Sources:
Arah, Benjamin. "Washington, Booker T.." The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought, edited by Ed. F. Abiola Irele. , edited by and Biodun Jeyifo. . Oxford African American Studies Center,

W.E.B. Du Bois, Booker T. Washington and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement (